3 Farm Laws
Farmers` opposition: States will lose revenue because they will not be able to charge “Mandi fees” if farmers sell their products outside the markets registered by the Agricultural Products Market Committee (APMC). In addition, the commissionaires will lose if all the agricultural trade leaves Mandis. On Gurupurab, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced on Friday that the government had decided to repeal the three agricultural laws that were at the center of farmers` protests last year and called on farmers to stop the unrest and return home. The farmers` demonstration will take place on 26 November for one year. The case was taken to court and the Supreme Court suspended the implementation of the three agricultural laws on 12 January pending further orders. Here`s a look at the three laws and why they haven`t been well received by farmers. On the 12th. In January 2021, the Supreme Court suspended the implementation of agricultural laws.  The Supreme Court has set up a committee to investigate abuses related to agricultural laws.   The Committee has asked the public for proposals on farm laws by February 20, 2021.  Less than US$3 billion of the US$428 billion planned for the 2018 Farm Bill will be allocated to programs that fall into the “Other” category, to which many important programs such as the Local Agricultural Markets Program (LAMP), include the Farming Opportunities Training and Outreach (FOTO) program, the Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative (OREI) and the Specialty Crop Block Grant Program (SCBGP). The leader of the Bharatiya Kisan Union (BKU), Rakesh Tikait, had recently said that the centre would be open until September 26. November, a year after the protests began, has time to repeal controversial farm laws that are intensifying farmers` protests in Delhi.
Referring to the easing of food regulations, former Punjab Prime Minister Amarinder Singh said this would result in exporters, processors and traders accumulating agricultural products during the harvest season, when prices are generally lower, and releasing them later when prices rise. Those who oppose it expect irrational volatility in staple food prices and an increase in black marketing. Earlier this month, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced that the three laws would be repealed during the winter session of Parliament. He said the laws were passed with the aim of bringing about reforms in the agricultural sector, but that the government had “failed” to convince farmers that they were for their well-being. The government had said the new laws would help strengthen the basic infrastructure of the agricultural sector through more private investment. Successive governments have identified financial constraints on investment in agricultural and rural infrastructure. It is argued that given the exponential growth of food markets in India, private actors would make agriculture profitable for farmers. On the 20th. In September 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi described the bills as a turning point in the history of Indian agriculture, saying the bills would “ensure a complete transformation of the agricultural sector” and empower tens of millions of farmers.
 In Prime Minister Mann ki Baat`s radio speech on November 29, 2020, he said that “all political parties have made promises to the peasants, but now those promises have been kept.”   Several EU ministers have urged farmers not to have misconceptions about reforms.   Narendra Singh Tomar, Minister of Agriculture and Farmers` Welfare, rejected calls for the inclusion of the Minimum Support Price (MSP) as a mandatory provision in the Farm Bills, saying that while the government was committed to the MSP, it was “not part of the law” and was “not” today.  Farmers` opposition: Large corporations will have the freedom to store raw materials, which will help them dictate conditions to farmers. Farmers, mainly from Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh, have been protesting against the three laws for nearly a year. Punjab and Uttar Pradesh are heading for parliamentary elections early next year. On the other hand, Article 6 prohibited the levying of market fees or levies under a State APMC law or other State law in respect of transactions outside the APMC market. Article 14 gave a comprehensive effect on the conflicting provisions of the states` CMPA laws, and Article 17 authorized the Centre to establish rules for the implementation of the provisions of the Act. The Agricultural Trade and Trade (Promotion and Moderation) Act provides for the establishment of a mechanism that allows farmers to sell their agricultural products outside the Agricultural Products Market Committees (APCAs).
Any licensee may purchase the products from farmers at mutually agreed prices. This trade in agricultural products will be exempt from the Mandi tax levied by state governments. The acts were met with protests from farmers in different parts of India, who claimed it would affect their incomes.  The main reasons for this resistance are uncertainty about the implementation of reforms, controversy over minimum support prices (PSM) and the low bargaining power of farmers are some of the fears that led to the rejection of the bills.  The lack of legal support in the bills for the MSP is an important opportunity, especially for farmers in Punjab and Haryana, where 65% of the wheat (2019) in the MSP is purchased by the Food Corporation of India and government agencies.  Protesters pointed out that the deregulation of the sugar industry in 1998, which paved the way for private farms, did not lead to a significant improvement in farmers` productivity or incomes. An attempt by the state of Bihar to deregulate CGAs in 2006 did not lead to an increase in farmers` incomes or improved infrastructure.  It gives farmers the freedom to grow contracts and freely market their products. In this context, farmers could enter into a direct agreement with a buyer before sowing to sell their products at predetermined prices.
It also gave way to the establishment of agricultural agreements between farmers and sponsors. However, the law did not mention the MSPs that buyers must offer to farmers. READ ALSO: We couldn`t convince farmers: Yogi Adityanath hails Prime Minister Modi`s decision to repeal agricultural laws The most troubling aspect of these laws was the way they were written and passed. First, even today, little is known to the public about who drafted these laws or who was consulted as regulations before they were introduced. 1. Agricultural Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020: This aims to give farmers the freedom to sell their products outside the reported APMC (Mandis) market prices. This aims to facilitate attractive prices through competitive alternative trading channels. No levy or fee shall be levied on farmers for the sale of their products in accordance with this Act. Title 1: Commodities.
The product title includes price and income support for farmers who grow widespread and marketed non-perishable crops such as corn, soybeans, wheat and rice, as well as dairy products and sugar. The title also covers relief in the event of an agricultural disaster. Title 2: Nature conservation. The title of conservation includes programs that help farmers implement efforts to conserve natural resources on work surfaces such as pastures and arable land, as well as retirement and servitude programs. Title 3: Trade. Trade title includes subsidy programs for food exports and international food aid programs. Title 4: Nutrition. The nutritional title includes the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP] (formerly known as food stamps), as well as a variety of small nutrition programs that help low-income Americans get food for their families.
Title 5: Credit. The loan title includes federal loan programs designed to help farmers access the financial credit (through direct loans, as well as loan guarantees and other instruments) they need to grow and maintain their farms. Title 6: Rural development. The title “Rural Development” includes programmes that help promote rural economic growth through rural enterprise and community development (including farms), as well as rural housing and infrastructure. Title 7: Research, enlargement and related issues. The title of the research includes research, education and advisory programs for farms and food to support innovation, from federal laboratories and state academic research to important training for the next generation of farmers and ranchers. Title 8: Forestry. The Forestry title includes forest-specific conservation programs that help farmers and rural communities be stewards of forest resources. Title 9: Energy.
The energy title includes programs that promote crop cultivation and processing for biofuels, help farmers, ranchers and business owners install renewable energy systems, and support energy research. Title 10: Horticulture. The Horticulture designation includes local farmers` markets and food programs, research and infrastructure funding for fruits, vegetables and other horticultural crops, as well as organic farming and certification programs. Title 11: Crop Insurance. The crop insurance title provides premium subsidies for farmers and subsidies for private crop insurance companies that offer farmers state crop insurance to protect against yield losses, crop income or total farm income. The title also gives the USDA`s Risk Management Agency (RMA) the authority to research, develop, and modify insurance policies. Title 12: Miscellaneous. The title Miscellaneous is a bit of a catch-all.
The current title brings together six areas of advocacy and awareness-raising, including beginners, socially disadvantaged and experienced farmers and herders, agricultural work safety and staff development, and animal health. 6. Like the Farm Bill, the differences between the Budget Acts of the House and the Senate are resolved by a small group of legislators called the Conference Committee.